Object-Oriented Programming in Python: Understanding Classes and Objects

Object-Oriented Programming (OOP) is a powerful paradigm that allows us to model real-world entities as objects in our programs. Python, being an object-oriented programming language, provides extensive support for creating and utilizing classes and objects. Let’s dive into the concept of Object-Oriented Programming (OOP) in Python.

What are Classes?

Think of a class as a blueprint or template for creating objects. Just like a blueprint helps in building houses with similar features, a class helps in creating objects with similar attributes (properties) and abilities (methods).

A class defines the attributes and methods that objects of that class will have. It provides a way to organize and structure code, making it more manageable and reusable. The attributes of a class represent the data associated with the objects, while the methods define the operations or behaviors that the objects can perform.

What are Objects?

An object is an instance of a class. It is a self-contained unit that combines data (attributes) and functionality (methods). For example, consider a class called “Car.” An object of this class could represent a specific car in the real world, such as a BMW or a Toyota. Each car object will have its own unique set of attributes, such as color, model, and year of manufacture.

Attributes: Characteristics of Objects

Attributes are like characteristics or properties of an object. For example, if we have a class called “Car,” the attributes could be its color, model, and number of doors. Each car object created from this class will have its own values for these attributes.


Imagine a class called “Person” with attributes like name, age, and occupation. Each person object created from this class will have its own unique values for these attributes. For instance, one person object may have the name “Alice,” age 25, and occupation “Engineer,” while another person object may have the name “Bob,” age 30, and occupation “Teacher.”

Methods: Actions of Objects

Methods represent the actions or abilities of an object. They define what an object can do. For example, a “Car” class may have methods like “start_engine” and “accelerate” to perform actions specific to a car.


Consider a class called “Dog” with methods like “bark” and “fetch.” Each dog object created from this class will have the ability to bark and fetch. So, if we create a dog object named “Buddy,” we can call its “bark” method to make it bark.

Object Creation: Bringing Classes to Life

To bring a class to life and create objects, we use a process called instantiation. It’s like manufacturing an object based on the class blueprint. When an object is created, it gets its own set of attributes and can perform the methods defined in the class.


If we have a class called “Book” and we want to create an object representing a specific book, we use the class to instantiate the object. This object will have attributes like title and author, and methods like “read” or “turn_page” to perform actions related to the book.

Main differences between a class and an object

ClassObject (Instance)
DefinitionBlueprint or template for creating objectsRealization of a class with its own unique values
PurposeDefines the structure and behavior of objectsRepresents a specific instance of a class
CreationDefined using the class keyword followed by a nameCreated by calling the class as if it were a function
AttributesDescribes the properties/characteristics of objectsRepresents the values of attributes defined in the class
MethodsDefines the behaviors/actions that objects can performRepresents the specific actions/behaviors of an object
ReusabilityCan be used to create multiple instances/objects with similar characteristics and behaviorsEach object is an independent entity with its own values
ScopeClass scope determines the attributes and methods accessible to objectsObject scope is limited to the attributes and methods defined in the class
RelationshipObjects are instances of a class, created based on the class blueprintObjects relate to a specific class, and multiple objects can be created from the same class
InteractionObjects interact with each other by calling methods or accessing attributesObjects can communicate and share information through methods and attributes
Tabular representation highlighting the main differences between a class and an object

Some key points about classes in Python

  1. Syntax: To define a class in Python, we use the class keyword followed by the class name. The class name should follow the naming conventions for Python variables (e.g., start with a letter or underscore, followed by letters, digits, or underscores).
  2. Attributes: Attributes are variables that hold data associated with a class. They define the state or characteristics of an object. We can define attributes within the class by assigning values to them. Each object created from the class will have its own set of attribute values.
  3. Methods: Methods are functions defined within a class. They define the behavior or actions that objects of the class can perform. Methods can access and manipulate the object’s attributes. Like functions, methods can take parameters and return values.
  4. Object Creation: Objects (also called instances) are created by calling the class as if it were a function. This process is known as instantiation. When an object is created, it gets its own set of attributes and can access the methods defined in the class.
  5. Object-Oriented Principles: Classes in Python adhere to the principles of object-oriented programming, such as encapsulation, inheritance, and polymorphism. These principles allow for code reusability, modularity, and easier maintenance.


In Python, classes provide a way to create objects with specific characteristics and behaviors. Attributes define the properties of objects, while methods define their abilities or actions. Classes act as blueprints that help us organize and reuse code. By understanding classes, we can create structured and reusable code, similar to using blueprints to build various houses with similar features.